University of Georgia The Mughal Leader Babur History Discussion

Traditions & Encounters: A Brief Global History Chapter 24

1 The Mughal leader Babur originally invaded northern India

  1. A) to create Shiite Muslim state.
  2. B) because he was unable to achieve his ambitious goals in central Asia.
  3. C) to control the trade routes into southeast Asia.
  4. D) to defeat his longstanding enemy, the sultan of Delhi.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: Babur hoped to use the enormous wealth of India to build a vast central Asian empire.

2 Akbar’s reign included all the following except

  1. A) religious toleration for Hindus and Sikhs.
  2. B) a syncretic religion, called “divine faith,” which stressed loyalty to the emperor.
  3. C) a centralized administrative structure with ministers appointed to regional provinces.
  4. D) education and basic rights for Indian women.
  5. E) conquest of Gujarat and Bengal.

Feedback: Akbar had a strong centralized government which tolerated various religions, but did not address the issues of Indian women.

3 The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb

  1. A) replaced many Hindu temples with mosques.
  2. B) promoted religious toleration.
  3. C) converted to Hinduism.
  4. D) presided over an era of religious harmony.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

Feedback: Aurangzeb, a devout Muslim, faced rebellions throughout his extended empire, largely due to his intolerance of Hindus and his policy of replacing Hindu temples with mosques.

4 Politically, all three of the Islamic states began as

  1. A) oligarchies, dominated by the merchant class.
  2. B) constitutional monarchies.
  3. C) military states.
  4. D) feudal aristocracies.

E) tribal councils.

Feedback: The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires were all military creations, regarded by their rulers as their possessions by right of conquest.

5 Foreign trade took hold primarily in

  1. A) the Ottoman and the Mughal empires.
  2. B) the Mughal and the Safavid empires.
  3. C) the Safavid and the Ottoman empires.
  4. D) all three empires.
  5. E) none of the empires.

Feedback: The Mughals did not pay as much attention to foreign trade as the Ottomans and Safavids did, as they concentrated on their own massive and productive land empire.

6 One persistent problem within all three empires was

A) B) C) D) E)

three states the succession to the throne was a deadly contest between competing members of a family.

7 Major trade commodities sought by European merchants from the Islamic empires included

  1. A) tobacco and slaves.
  2. B) sugar and rum.
  3. C) silks, carpets, and ceramics.
  4. D) manufactured goods.
  5. E) slaves.

Feedback: European merchants sought raw silk, carpets, and ceramics from the Islamic empires. 8 Which of the following would not be an example of religious toleration under Muslim rule?

  1. A) the millet communities in the Ottoman empire
  2. B) the jizya tax imposed by Aurangzeb
  3. C) granting non-Muslims status as protected people (dhimmi)

Feedback: In all

maintaining the loyalty of the military.

maintaining control over a vast slave population.

communication between the central and provincial administrations.

achieving a peaceful succession after the death of the emperor.

All these answers are correct.

  1. D) the syncretic “divine faith” of Akbar
  2. E) All of these are examples of religious toleration under Muslim rule.

Feedback: Aurangzeb reinstated the jizya to encourage conversion to Islam. 9 A major reason for the decline in the Islamic empires was

  1. A) the refusal to accept new ideas and technologies from the West.
  2. B) an abandonment of religious toleration as a state policy.
  3. C) the decline in military leadership.
  4. D) the rigidity of the religious leaders.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: The Islamic empires experienced military decline because they did not seek to improve their military technologies.

10 The Muslim resistance to new ideas and technologies by the eighteenth century is illustrated by

  1. A) the Ottoman ban on the printing press.
  2. B) the purchase of outmoded weapons from Europe.
  3. C) the banning of “impious” telescopes.
  4. D) a reluctance of Muslims to travel abroad.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: The Muslims traveled little and were resistant to European ideas and technologies, being confident in their own superiority.

11 In their A) B) C) D) E) Feedback:

rise to power the Ottomans were aided by the ghazi, who were Mongol mercenaries.
Christian captives raised to fight for them.
Muslim religious warriors.

Anatolian peasants, eager to escape the heavy taxes of the Byzantine empire.

All these answers are correct.
The term ghazi refers to Muslim religious warriors.

12 The Ottoman military made use of

  1. A) gunpowder weapons.
  2. B) siege warfare.

C) specially trained Janissary forces.

  1. D) armored cavalry.
  2. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: The Ottomans had a formidable military machine.
13 Which of the following places did not come under the control of the Muslim Ottomans?

  1. A) Albania
  2. B) Syria
  3. C) Egypt
  4. D) the Iranian plateau
  5. E) Serbia

Feedback: The Iranian plateau was controlled by the Safavids, not the Ottomans. 14 The Janissaries were

  1. A) slave women who lived in the sultan’s harem.
  2. B) Christian boys taken from conquered territories and raised as special forces.
  3. C) regional administrators, who were granted autonomy in exchange for loyalty and


  1. D) armored light cavalry.
  2. E) eunuchs in service to the sultan.

Feedback: Janissaries were young Christian boys from the Balkans who became slaves of the Sultan and were trained as soldiers.

15 Suleyman the Magnificent

  1. A) captured Belgrade and laid siege to the city of Vienna.
  2. B) conquered Russia.
  3. C) brought the entire Arabian peninsula under Ottoman rule.
  4. D) invaded the island of Sicily.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: Ottoman imperialism climaxed in the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, who captured Belgrade and laid siege to Vienna in the 1520s.

16 During the fourteenth century, Ottoman forces captured all of the following except

  1. A) Bursa.
  2. B) Edirne (Adrianople).
  3. C) Constantinople.
  4. D) Gallipoli.
  5. E) They captured all of these.

Feedback: Constantinople was not captured until the middle of the fifteenth century. 17 The Safavid empire began with the reign of Shah Ismail, who claimed legitimacy by

  1. A) killing off competitors from the Mughal royal families.
  2. B) seizing the Peacock Throne.
  3. C) tracing his ancestry back to a Sufi religious leader.
  4. D) marrying the daughter of Suleyman the Magnificent.
  5. E) tracing his ancestry back to Tamerlane.

Feedback: Shah Ismail claimed legitimacy to the throne by tracing his ancestry back to Safi al-Din. 18 Twelver Shiism was a Muslim sect that claimed that

  1. A) Ismail was the “hidden” imam or even a reincarnation of Allah.
  2. B) Shah Ismail was a direct descendent of the prophet Muhammad.
  3. C) all ghazi are true spokesmen of Allah.
  4. D) the Safavid were the lost tribe of Israel.
  5. E) the qizilbash, or “red heads,” should be purged from the country.

Feedback: Safavid propaganda suggested that Ismail was the “hidden imam” who had gone into hiding in 874, or even an incarnation of Allah himself.

19 At the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514,

  1. A) the Safavid qizilbash defeated the Ottoman Janissary forces.
  2. B) the Sunni Ottomans defeated the Shiite Safavids.
  3. C) an alliance of Safavids and Ottomans defeated European crusaders.
  4. D) European forces turned back the Ottoman advance into central Europe.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

Feedback: The Safavids, trusting in the protective charisma of Shah Ismail, were defeated by the heavily armed Ottomans at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514.

20 Shah Abbas revitalized the Safavid regime by all of the following means except

  1. A) reforming administrative and military institutions.
  2. B) defeating the nomadic Uzbeks.
  3. C) expelling the Portuguese from Hormuz.
  4. D) forging alliances with the Ottomans against Europeans.
  5. E) promoting trade with other lands.

Feedback: In revitalizing his empire, Shah Abbas sought European assistance against the Ottomans.

Traditions & Encounters: A Brief Global History Chapter 27
Multiple Choice

1. Railroads shaped America’s society and economy by doing all of the following except

  1. A) creating an integrated national economy.
  2. B) spurring the development of other industries.
  3. C) providing cheap transportation for manufactured and agricultural


  1. D) encouraging the development of improved managerial skills.
  2. E) undermining support for private property.

Feedback: Railroads were the most important component of nineteenth-century America’s economic development.

2. New inventions toward the turn of the century included all of the following except

  1. A) electric lights.
  2. B) the electric motor.
  3. C) radio.
  4. D) the phonograph.
  5. E) the telephone.

Feedback: Many new inventions appeared at the turn of the century, including electric lights, the electric motor, the phonograph, and the telephone, but not the radio.

3. The National Policy for the economic development of Canada included

  1. A) tariffs to protect Canadian industry.
  2. B) recruitment of immigrants.
  3. C) construction of the Canadian Pacific Railroad.
  4. D) all of these: tariffs to protect Canadian industry, recruitment of

immigrants, and construction of the Canadian Pacific Railroad.

E) None of these answers is correct.
Feedback: Economic development in Canada included protection of industries through tariffs, recruitment of migrants, construction of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, and the attraction of foreign investments.

4. Economic development in Latin America was limited because
A) elites profited from European trade and investment and had little

incentive to diversify the economy.

  1. B) most goods were manufactured on self-sufficient haciendas.
  2. C) state control discouraged foreign investment.
  3. D) there were insufficient natural resources in Latin America.
  4. E) there wasn’t enough cheap labor in Latin America.

Feedback: Latin America’s economic development was also limited due to an insufficient market for manufactured goods.

5. During the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, Mexico achieved all of the following

A) construction of rail and telegraph lines.
B) industrial expansion.
C) paved streets and electric lights in Mexico city.
D) improved public health and education.
E) significant foreign investment in the Mexican economy.

Feedback: Porfirio Diaz achieved a great deal during his dictatorship, but his accomplishments did not include improvements in public health and education.

6. Institutions such as the Carlisle Indian School and the Toledo Indian School made


  1. A) the deep appreciation American whites had for Indian culture.
  2. B) the extent to which the U.S. government went to ensure the survival of

Indian culture
C) the degree to which white society sought to replace tribal influences

with American values.
D) the degree to which Indians continued to resist white society in the

early nineteenth century.
E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: Despite white efforts to assimilate native Americans and to eradicate their culture, native Americans successfully reaffirmed their native identities

7. After Reconstruction, former slaves in the American south

  1. A) elected biracial governments for the first time in U.S. history.
  2. B) remained free, but lost many of their civil rights.
  3. C) continued to dominate southern society.
  4. D) gained control of their own schools and local institutions.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: After Reconstruction, former slaves in the American south faced a rigidly segregated society that deprived them of many of their civil rights.

8. The Northwest Rebellion in Canada in 1885 was sparked by
A) the westward movement of British Canadian settlers and the

construction of the Canadian Pacific Railroad.

  1. B) tensions between British and Japanese settlers on the frontier.
  2. C) conflicts between settlers and the railroad over land rights.
  3. D) tensions between British and French residents and newcomers from

eastern Europe.
E) a border dispute between Canadian and American settlers on the

western plains.
Feedback: The threat of white settlement to indigenous and mets society resulted in the Northwest Rebellion in 1885.

9. The gaucho in Argentina is similar to what widely romanticized figure in American history?

  1. A) the fur trader
  2. B) the solitary prospector
  3. C) the homesteader
  4. D) the cattle rustler
  5. E) the western cowboy

Feedback: Argentina’s gauchos were very similar to the cowboy.

10. By 1900, Latin American women had achieved

  1. A) expanded educational opportunities.
  2. B) the right to vote in national elections.
  3. C) the right to divorce.
  4. D) property rights within marriage.
  5. E) nothing at all.

Feedback: Although Latin America did not have a strong women’s movement, there was an expansion of educational opportunities for young women after the mid- nineteenth century.

11. The westward expansion of the United States took place as a result of the all of the following except

  1. A) the acquisition of territory from Britain.
  2. B) purchase of land from France.
  3. C) the movement of settlers seeking cheap land to cultivate.
  4. D) war and purchase from Mexico.
  5. E) purchase from indigenous people.

Feedback: Western expansion faced staunch resistance from indigenous peoples.

12. The term “manifest destiny” was used to describe

  1. A) the inevitability of American independence from Britain.
  2. B) the superiority of the U.S. Constitution.
  3. C) the inevitability of American dominion over all of North America.
  4. D) the superiority of the north to the south during the Civil War.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: Many Americans spoke of a “manifest destiny” to occupy all of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

13. At Wounded Knee in 1890,

  1. A) Colonel George Armstrong Custer was defeated by the Lakota Sioux.
  2. B) thousands of eastern Cherokee were crowded onto a desolate

reservation in Oklahoma.
C) Sioux warriors, emboldened by the Ghost Dance movement, attacked

and massacred a community of white settlers.
D) U.S. cavalry massacred a settlement of 200 Sioux men, women, and

E) Blackfoot warriors tried unsuccessfully to escape across the border

into Canada.

Feedback: At Wounded Knee, a Sioux man accidentally shot off a gun, and the cavalry reacted by slaughtering more than 200 men, women, and children.

14. Which of the following was acquired as a result of the Mexican-American War?

  1. A) Montana
  2. B) California
  3. C) Iowa
  4. D) Oregon
  5. E) Missouri

Feedback: The territories acquired as a result of the Mexican-American War included Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah.

15. The constitutional issue at the center of the American Civil War was

  1. A) the balance of power between the president and the Congress.
  2. B) the balance of power between the state governments and the federal

C) conflicting claims between the individual and society.

  1. D) the rights of immigrant labor versus the rights of slave labor.
  2. E) how to fulfill ideals of the Enlightenment.

Feedback: The constitutional issue at the center of the Civil War was the issue of states’ rights as opposed federal government authority.

16. The Emancipation Proclamation

  1. A) freed all slaves in the western hemisphere.
  2. B) freed all slaves who took up arms against the south.
  3. C) made the abolition of slavery an explicit goal of the Civil War.
  4. D) freed all slaves in the western territories.
  5. E) promised to free all slaves at the end of the Civil War.

Feedback: In practical terms, the Emancipation Proclamation had little immediate effect on the status of slaves.

17. British Canada gained a large French population as a result of

  1. A) France’s loss of its Canadian colonies in the Seven Years’ War.
  2. B) the flight to Canada of French Protestants in the eighteenth century.
  3. C) French citizens fleeing the Napoleonic wars.
  4. D) French fur traders being driven out of the United States.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: The colony of New France passed to the British empire when France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Years’ War.

18. Which of the following provinces was not part of the Dominion of Canada by 1900?

  1. A) Alberta
  2. B) British Columbia
  3. C) Nova Scotia
  4. D) Ontario

E) Quebec
Feedback: The British North American Act of 1867 joined Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick and recognized them as the Dominion of Canada.

19. In Latin America, the road to a stable state was hindered by

  1. A) a lower-class conspiracy against the wealthy.
  2. B) a socialist revolution.
  3. C) sharp divisions among the creoles, and the seizure of power by


  1. D) the re-establishment of Spanish rule.
  2. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: Divisions among the creole classes aggravated political instability in Latin America.

20. The Mexican revolution was fundamentally a conflict between

  1. A) supporters of the Catholic church and anti-cleric communists.
  2. B) liberal and socialist programs for social reform.
  3. C) supporters of Emiliano Zapata and supporters of Pancho Villa.
  4. D) Mexican business interests and foreign investors.
  5. E) conservative landowners and landless peasants.

Feedback: The Mexican revolution was primarily a conflict between conservative landowners and the landless peasants.

Traditions & Encounters: A Brief Global History Chapter 31
Multiple Choice

1. Who among the following emerged as the leader and principal theoretician of the Chinese communist movement?

  1. A) Mao Zedong
  2. B) Jiang Jieshi
  3. C) Sun Yatsen
  4. D) Shanfei
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

Feedback: During the Long March, Mao Zedong emerged as the leader and principal theoretician of the Chinese communist movement.

2. In the decades following the Great War, the economies of most African colonies were dominated by

A) the exchange of raw materials or cash crops for manufactured goods from abroad.

  1. B) light manufacturing.
  2. C) the production of steel.
  3. D) cattle ranching.
  4. E) furniture manufacture.

Feedback: In the decades following the Great War, colonial powers worked to ensure the development in Africa of export-oriented economies characterized by the exchange of unprocessed raw materials or minimally processed cash crops for manufactured goods from abroad.

3. Which of the following is not true regarding Africa during the decades after the Great War?

A) Colonial taxation policies were designed to drive Africans into the labor market.

B) Using African labor and tax monies, Europeans built economic infrastructure.

C) Europeans promoted rapid, intensive industrialization among their colonial possessions.

D) The Great Depression exposed the vulnerability of dependent colonial economies.

E) All of these are true.
Feedback: In African colonies, Europeans concentrated on the development of large- scale farming for the production of cash crops, and mining.

4. Who among the following was an artist who blended artistic vision and radical political ideas in large murals that he created for the appreciation of working people?

  1. A) Carmen Miranda
  2. B) Lazaro Cardenas

C) Victor Raul Haya de la Torre

  1. D) Diego Rivera
  2. E) Anastacio Somoza Garcia

Feedback: Diego Rivera blended his artistic and political visions in vast murals that he intended for viewing and appreciation by the masses. He believed that art should be on display for working people.

5. Who among the following was noted for his “good neighbor policy”?

  1. A) Woodrow Wilson
  2. B) Theodore Roosevelt
  3. C) Howard Taft
  4. D) Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  5. E) Herbert Hoover

Feedback: The “Good Neighbor Policy” was most closely associated with the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

6. Marcus Garvey
A) was a member of the “new elite” of African colonies who became

president of Kenya.

  1. B) was a Jamaican Pan-Africanist leader.
  2. C) was a leader of the Mumbo cult.
  3. D) mobilized Africans to revolt against British rule during the Great War.
  4. E) None of these answers is correct.

Feedback: Marcus Garvey was the Jamaican nationalist leader who preached black pride and called on blacks living in the African diaspora to go “Back to Africa.”

the Great Depression, Latin American nations experienced all of the except

rapidly rising investment in the region by U.S. bankers. rapidly increasing unemployment rates.
a sharp decline in the price of the region’s exports.
the drying-up of foreign capital investments.

rising tariffs and restrictions on foreign trade.
Feedback: The Great Depression produced an economic crisis in Latin America, and demonstrated the degree to which the region had become integrated into the global economy.

8. Carmen Miranda

  1. A) created a famous painting called Imperialism.
  2. B) wore colorful headdresses adorned with fruits, such as bananas,

grown in Latin America.
C) was the popular wife of an Argentine dictator.

  1. D) served as the model for an ad created by the United Fruit Company.
  2. E) both wore colorful headdresses adorned with fruits, and served as the

model for an ad created by the United Fruit Company.

7. During following A) B) C) D) E)

Feedback: The singer and dancer Carmen Miranda wore colorful headdresses adorned with fruits, such as bananas, grown in Latin America and, in 1944, the United Fruit Company’s advertising executives crafted “Chiquita Banana,” a female banana look-alike of Carmen Miranda.

9. After Mexico angered American oil companies by nationalizing its oil industry in 1938, the Roosevelt administration

A) called for a negotiated resolution.
B) declared war.
C) intervened in Mexico with military forces.
D) called for economic sanctions against Mexico. E) did nothing.

Feedback: Roosevelt’s approach eventually worked, and foreign oil companies received $24 million in compensation from Mexico rather than the $260 million they had demanded.

10. Brazil responded to the Great Depression by
A) adopting Soviet communism.
B) adopting fascism.
C) embarking on a program of industrialization. D) declaring war on Peru.

E) None of these answers is correct.
Feedback: Under the estado novo (new state), Brazil embarked on a program of industrialization accompanied by protectionism and social welfare initiatives.

11. Satyagraha was

  1. A) Gandhi’s philosophy of passive resistance.
  2. B) the Islamic leader who called for the creation of Pakistan for India’s

C) Mao Zedong’s adapted philosophy of Chinese communism.

  1. D) the original name of the Pan-African movement.
  2. E) the Chinese political party headed by Jiang Jieshi.

Feedback: Gandhi embraced a moral philosophy of tolerance and nonviolence (ahimsa) and developed the technique of passive resistance that he called satyagraha (“truth and firmness”).

12. Gandhi embraced a moral philosophy of tolerance and nonviolence (ahimsa) during the twenty-five years he spent in

  1. A) South Africa.
  2. B) China.
  3. C) Morocco.
  4. D) Great Britain.
  5. E) Argentina.

Feedback: Gandhi embraced a moral philosophy of tolerance and nonviolence (ahimsa) during the twenty-five years he spent in South Africa.

13. Gandhi

  1. A) fought hard to improve the status of the casteless Untouchables.
  2. B) launched the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  3. C) began the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  4. D) worked to secure approval of the Government of India Act.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: Gandhi worked to improve the status of the Untouchables and launched both the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement. Also, it was at the urging of Gandhi that the majority of Indians approved the Government of India Act.

14. The Government of India Act

  1. A) resulted in complete Indian independence in 1931.
  2. B) was bitterly opposed by Gandhi.
  3. C) proved unworkable.
  4. D) failed to win the approval of India voters.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: The Government of India Act foundered in the face of India’s ethnic divisions.

15. Muhammad Ali Jinnah called for the creation of

  1. A) Pakistan.
  2. B) Iraq.
  3. C) Palestine.
  4. D) Saudi Arabia.
  5. E) Afghanistan.

Feedback: In place of one India, Muhammad Ali Jinnah proposed two states, one of which would be the “land of the pure,” or Pakistan.

16. Muhammad Ali Jinnah

  1. A) led the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. B) was an adherent of values and virtues discussed in the Bhagavad Gita.
  3. C) was Gandhi’s main challenger for political leadership of Hindus.
  4. D) headed the Muslim League.
  5. E) was the founder of the Indian National Congress.

Feedback: Muhammad Ali Jinnah was an eloquent and brilliant lawyer who headed the Muslim League.

17. In 1912, who became the first provisional president of what would become the republic of China?

  1. A) Mohandas Gandhi
  2. B) Jiang Jieshi
  3. C) Puyi
  4. D) Sun Yatsen
  5. E) Mao Zedong

Feedback: Sun Yatsen had been a leading opponent of the old regime. He became president of an increasingly divided China in 1912.

18. Mao Zedong’s main rival after 1925 was

  1. A) Puyi.
  2. B) Sun Yatsen.
  3. C) Jiang Jieshi.
  4. D) Mohandas Gandhi.
  5. E) Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Feedback: After the death of Sun Yatsen in 1925, Mao Zedong and Jiang Jieshi became major adversaries in the struggle for power in China.

19. The May Fourth Movement
A) was a significant turning point in the evolution of Marcus Garvey’s

political efforts.

  1. B) was a sign of growing Japanese nationalism.
  2. C) became the pretext for Japan to invade Manchuria.
  3. D) was a movement organized by intellectuals and students aimed at

limiting foreign?especially Japanese?influence in China.
E) was typical of Gandhi’s nonviolent movements.

Feedback: Increasing Japanese involvement in China after World War I gave rise to the May Fourth Movement, in which all classes of Chinese protested against foreign involvement.

20. The Long March

  1. A) destroyed Mao Zedong’s credibility with the Chinese.
  2. B) left Jiang Jieshi in complete control of the Chinese Communist Party.
  3. C) saved the Chinese Communist Party from destruction.
  4. D) was the final victory for the Guomindang.
  5. E) forced Mao Zedong to flee China and hide in the Soviet Union.

Feedback: The Long March inspired many Chinese to join the Communist Party.

Traditions & Encounters: A Brief Global History Chapter 34
Multiple Choice

1. In 2005, the population of the globe was approximately

  1. A) 500 million.
  2. B) 1 billion.
  3. C) 2 billion.
  4. D) 6.5 billion.
  5. E) 22 billion.

Feedback: The population of the earth was 6.5 billion in 2005, and is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050.

2. Global warming refers to

  1. A) natural variations in the global climate over time.
  2. B) the rise in global temperatures caused by atmospheric pollution such

as the emissions of cars and factories.
C) the risk of a nuclear war when the planet is politically “hot.”
D) the increase in temperature caused by volcanic activity on the ocean

E) None of these answers is correct.

Feedback: Global warming refers to a rise in global temperature caused by atmospheric pollution such as the emissions of cars and factories.

3. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established to have

all of the following except

  1. A) promote market economies.
  2. B) encourage free trade.
  3. C) facilitate high growth rates.
  4. D) subsidize state-owned industries in developing nations.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

Feedback: The IMF was established in 1944 to promote growth and free trade.

4. All of the following nations were founding members of the European Economic Community except

  1. A) France.
  2. B) West Germany.
  3. C) Italy.
  4. D) Belgium.
  5. E) Britain.

Feedback: Britain was not one of the founders of the European Economic Community.

5. Which of the following nations is a member of OPEC?

  1. A) Venezuela.
  2. B) Egypt.

C) Mali.

  1. D) Yemen.
  2. E) Afghanistan.

Feedback: Venezuela was one of the founding members of OPEC.

6. Which of the following statements about women in the workforce is least accurate?

A) Women in industrialized countries make up half or nearly half of the workforce.

B) Women in developing countries make up no more than one-fifth of the workforce.

C) Women make up nearly forty percent of the world’s farmers.

D) After achieving economic equality with men in industrialized countries at the beginning of the twentieth century, women successfully demanded the right to vote.

E) In both industrialized and developing countries, most women work in low-paying jobs such as education, service, and administrative assistance.
Feedback: In most industrialized nations, women received political rights by early in the twentieth century, but still have not fully closed the gap economically between them and their male counterparts.

7 .Which of the following regions is not one of the places where today’s most highly urbanized societies are found?

  1. A) Australia
  2. B) sub-Saharan Africa
  3. C) New Zealand
  4. D) northern Europe
  5. E) western Europe

Feedback: Highly urbanized societies are generally found in regions that are more temperate than that of sub-Saharan Africa, though large slums are developing there and in similar regions of the world.

8. The largest migrations of the second half of the twentieth century were primarily composed of

A) refugees fleeing war.
B) farmers looking for economic opportunities in cities.
C) immigrants seeking better jobs in foreign countries.
D) city-dwellers escaping to the suburbs to get away from urban squalor. E) the victims of human trafficking.

Feedback: Although economic incentives fuel the normal flows of migrations, wars tend to displace far larger numbers of people.

9. What organization supplanted GATT in 1995?

  1. A) WTO
  2. B) NAFTA
  3. C) EU
  1. D) OPEC
  2. E) IMF

Feedback: In 1995 the members of GATT reconstituted themselves as the World Trade Organization, which pursues GATT’s goals but possesses greater powers of enforcement (and has become a focus for anti-globalization sentiment).

10. The term “little tigers” is used to designate emerging economies in

  1. A) Asia.
  2. B) sub-Saharan Africa.
  3. C) eastern Europe.
  4. D) Central America.
  5. E) the Caribbean.

Feedback: The original “little tigers” were Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, and Hong Kong, but membership in this group has expanded.

11. The purpose of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was to

  1. A) funnel U.S. economic aid to NATO allies.
  2. B) attract emerging economies into trade alliances with the United


C) eliminate barriers to free trade.

  1. D) regulate currency rates.
  2. E) set fair labor standards for the industrialized nations.

Feedback: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) served as the main vehicle for the promotion of unrestricted global trade.

12. In the 1970s OPEC demonstrated that

  1. A) the only way to defeat Israel was for all Arab states to work together.
  2. B) an alliance in control of a valuable resource could exert control over

the developed world and its financial system.
C) western powers could no longer dominate the Suez Canal.

D) overproduction of petroleum products can cause a slump in global prices.

E) All these answers are correct.
Feedback: In the 1970s OPEC demonstrated that by reducing oil exports, it could dramatically increase the price of oil and thereby deeply impact the global economy.

13. Which of the following is not a good example of the Americanization of global culture?

  1. A) Burger King
  2. B) Coca-Cola
  3. C) McDonalds
  4. D) Foster’s beer
  5. E) Pepsi

Feedback: Foster’s beer is an Australian product.
14. Which of the following statements about human trafficking is least accurate?

  1. A) It primarily affects women and girls.
  2. B) Many persons are sold into forced labor by their own families.
  3. C) Human trafficking generates billions of dollars each year.
  4. D) Human trafficking is practiced exclusively in Asia.
  5. E) One or two million persons are bought and sold each year.

Feedback: Although Asia is an important center of human trafficking, the trade is conducted worldwide, including, prominently, eastern Europe.

15. Which country’s Taliban movement provided sanctuary and training grounds to Islamic militants in the late 1990s?

  1. A) Afghanistan
  2. B) Iraq
  3. C) Saudi Arabia
  4. D) Israel
  5. E) Syria

Feedback: The Taliban came to power as a result of the civil war that followed the Soviet Union’s retreat from Afghanistan. It was toppled (though not destroyed) in 2001 by the U.S. and its allies.

16. Who orchestrated the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001?

  1. A) the Taliban
  2. B) al Qaeda
  3. C) Iraq
  4. D) Saudi Arabia
  5. E) Mohammed Omar

Feedback: The attacks were orchestrated by Osama bin Laden’s al Qaeda organization. Although Mohammed Omar’s Taliban gave sanctuary to al-Qaeda, it was not directly involved in the attacks.

17. In 1998 Osama bin Laden called for the murder of Americans in response to

  1. A) the stationing of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia.
  2. B) the bombing of Iraq.
  3. C) U.S. support for Israel.
  4. D) all of these: the stationing of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, the bombing

of Iraq, and U.S. support for Israel.

E) None of these answers is correct.
Feedback: Osama bin Laden was angered that non-Muslim American troops were stationed so close to Islam’s two holiest lands, and viewed the bombing of Iraq in the 1990s as an attack on Islam. He also opposed U.S. support for Israel.

18. The “Bush Doctrine of Deterrence” was implemented in 2003 by a U.S.-led preemptive strike against

  1. A) Iraq.
  2. B) Iran.
  3. C) Russia.
  4. D) China.

E) Taiwan.
Feedback: The U.S.-led invasion of Iraq troubled many members of the international community because Iraq had not committed an overt act of hostility against the U.S., and some of the stated justifications for the invasion, especially a supposed Iraqi weapons program, proved to be illusory.

19. Which organization eradicated smallpox in 1980?

  1. A) WHO
  2. B) NAFTA
  3. C) HAART
  4. D) OPEC
  5. E) EU

Feedback: Although the United Nations has been criticized for its failure to maintain peace, some of its agencies, such as the World Health Organization, have achieved impressive successes, such as ridding the world of smallpox and lowering infant mortality in developing countries.

20. Which organization issued a Declaration of Human Rights in 1948?

  1. A) EU
  2. B) IMF
  3. C) UN
  4. D) HAART
  5. E) OPEC

Feedback: In its initial charter, the United Nations pledged to support human rights. It would enshrine this principle in the Declaration of Human Rights, which condemned such abuses as slavery, summary execution, and discrimination.

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