San Jose State University Different Types of Statements Questionnaire

I need some answer with some question that I need help with

  1. True/False 2 points each, 32 points total mark “true” or “false” after each of the following (“T” or “F” is OK, just make it clear which one)
  1. A statement is an explanation of how or why something or event is; but a statement can’t be anything else.
  1. The statement “p&q” can only be true when both are true.
  1. “Faster than light travel is not possible. It would violate the laws of Nature.” This is an argument.
  1. The statement “pvq” is only false when both terms are false.
  1. If the statement is a conditional statement, then the only time it can be false is when you have a true antecedent and false consequent.
  1. It is reasonable to accept personal experience only if you have no good reason to doubt it.
  1. Group pressure only comes from peer pressure.
  1. The subjectivist fallacy is based solely on what one thinks and is not dependent on the way things are, according to our text.
  1. An explanation can be part of an argument.
  1. The record sales prove that Santana was the greatest 60s/70s rock group. This appeals to popularity.
  1. Random drug testing in schools is very effective in reducing drug use because the regular use of the testing makes drug use less likely. This is begging the question.
  1. The Gambler’s Fallacy is a situation where you don’t play again because you know you’re not going to win.
  1. If you don’t support Trump and believe the election was stolen, then you’re not for democracy. You don’t support that there was widespread fraud in the last election. You are therefore against democracy. This is the fallacy of equivocation.
  1. I’m sure Senator Braxton would never ever take a bribe. This is innuendo.
  1. Euphemisms are words used to convey a positive meaning.
  1. An appeal to pity is one of the possible aspects of appeal to emotion.

  1. Definitions 5 points each—except as noted Make a note to yourself to provide good examples. .
  1. Define what an argument is and its major components. Provide an example of an argument

  1. What are a few of the steps you should take to determine if something is fake news? (Vaughn lists four.) Apply an example 10 points

  1. Hasty generalizations are a fundamental problem in many different fallacies and errors in reasoning. Provide at least two and give an example for one of the two you have selected.

  1. “The most blatant occurrence of recent years is all these knuckleheads running around protesting nuclear power—all these stupid people who do no research at all and who go out and march, pretending they care about the human race, and then go off in their automobiles and kill each other” [Ray Bradbury] There are at least two fallacies in play here. Which are they? 15 points

  1. Define Straw Man and provide an example. Could that example have another fallacy in it?


  1. “On the 20th of May, 1747, I took twelve patients [with] scurvy on board the Salisbury at sea. Their cases were as similar as I could have them. They all in general had putrid gums, the spots and lassitude, with weakness of their knees. They lay together in one place being a proper apartment for the sick in the fore-hold; and had one diet in common to all…Two of these were ordered each a quart of cider a day. Two others took [twenty five drops of] vitriol three times a day…Two others took two spoonfuls of vinegar three times a day…Two of the worst patients [were given a half-pint of seawater daily]…Two others had each two oranges and one lemon given them everyday…The two remaining patients took [small doses of nutmeg, garlic, mustard seed, and a few other ingredients]. The consequence was that the most sudden and visible good effects were perceived from the use of the oranges and lemons, one of those who had taken them being at the end of six days fit for duty…The other was the best recovered of any in his condition, and is now deemed pretty well was appointed nurse to the rest of the sick. As I shall have occasion elsewhere to take notice of the effects of other medicines in this disease, I shall here only observe that the result of all my experiments was that oranges and lemons were the most effective remedies for this distemper at sea.” [James Lind, Of the Prevention of the Scurvy, 1753]

Identify the conclusion and say whether it appeals to the method of agreement, disagreement, or both or correlation. Indicate whether it is strong or weak. 20 points

  1. Define the fallacy of Faulty Analogy. Provide an example.

  1. Now define the parts necessary for a good inductive analogy. Provide a basic example. 10 points

  1. If I were conducting a poll, I’d want to have a target group, sample members and a relevant property. But say, I’m new at this game (I am), and I make a few mistakes. What could some of those mistakes in Enumerative Induction that I could make? Give some basic examples. 10 points

  1. What are some of the mistakes one can make in a causal analogy? Vaughn lists five, and does at least two. Give a brief example 10 points


  1. Analysis of an analogy 25 points for one, choose one

Do one of the following. Analyze the analogy. Is it strong, weak, a bit of each. Use the aspects of a good analogy that you’ve already worked on and apply them here.

The French Philosopher Rene Descartes argued that the body and any physical substance is like a machine. For the human body, it is like a clockwork with pulleys and wheels (nerves and muscles, heart, lungs). The body is separate from the mind. The mind is a different kind of thing. But unlike a pilot on a ship, the mind cannot leave the body. What would you need to make it a good analogy?

  1. Diagram and Truth Table 45 points

Do a truth table for the following; show and write whether it is valid or not. ( “/” is the symbol for the conclusion here) 25 points

  1. a v (b ->a)
  2. ~a & c
  3. /~b

Diagram 20 points

As before, number all sentences, number before the sentence not after. Discard by noting which sentences below and, of course, identify the conclusion to which this all tends.

“The fifth way [of proving that God exists] is taken from the governance of the world. We see that things which lack knowledge, such as natural bodies, act for an end, and this is evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the same way, so as to obtain the best result. Hence it is plain that they achieve their end, not fortuitously, but designedly. Now whatever lacks knowledge cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence, as the arrow is directed by the archer. Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.” [Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica]

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