PUG Managing Government Sponsored Healthcare Program Paper

I’m working on a health & medical writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.


Concept to Consider:

Imagine that you are a social worker at a local hospital. You have been asked to explain the issues involved in coordinating patients’ continued post-acute care (PAC), and  safely transitioning them out of the acute-care hospital. This Assignment examines PAC to patients with healthcare services for their recuperation and rehabilitation after an illness or jury and emphasizes the ethics in coding. Your responses are to address the best practices for assuring continuum of care.

Perform a search on healthcare issues and review the textbook for completing the seven questions listed below the discussion. Prepare 2–3 paragraphs for each question. Paper should include the following:


As patients continue their recovery, post-acute care (PAC) safely transitions them out of the acute-care hospital. There are four PAC settings: skilled nursing facilities (SNF), long-term care hospitals (LTCHs), inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), and home health agencies (HHAs).

Patients in these settings have similar conditions, such as strokes and hip replacements. However, Medicare pays different prices depending upon the setting

(Medicare Payment Advisory Commission 2014, 171). For a patient’s continued recovery and optimal outcome, does the choice of PAC setting matter? Two sets of researchers investigated this question. One set investigated the functional recovery for patients who had had a stroke (Chan et al. 2013). Another set investigated the functional recovery for patients who had had a hip fracture repaired (Mallinson et al. 2014).

Chan and colleagues performed a long-term study on 222 patients who had a stroke. The patients had received care from four different acute-care hospitals in one integrated delivery system (IDS). The patients also received their post-acute care from settings in the IDS. The IDS offered three types of PAC settings: SNF, IRF, and HHA. In addition, patients could receive outpatient care in the IDS. The researchers used a standardized instrument, the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC), to determine the patients’ functional status. The researchers scored the patients’ functional status twice: first immediately upon discharge from the acute care hospital and second 6 months after discharge and after receiving post-acute care. The researchers’ results showed:

Patients who received their post-acute care in an IRF had at least eight-point higher improvements in mobility, self-care, and cognition than patients who received their post-acute care in an SNF.

Patients who received their post-acute care in an IRF also had statistically significant improvements in applied cognition compared to those patients who only received home health combined with outpatient services.

Chan and colleagues concluded that “patients with a stroke may make more functional gains if they receive some of their post-acute care in an IRF compared to other sites” (Chan et al., 2013, 629).

Deutsch’s commentary on the research of Chan and colleagues noted that comparing outcomes across post-acute care is difficult because the PAC sites use different data sets (2013, 631–632).

Mallinson and colleagues investigated the outcomes of patients after hip fracture repair. Facilities from three types of PAC settings participated in the research. Eventually, the researchers reviewed the care of 181 patients at 18 PAC providers. These PAC providers were four IRFs, six SNFs, and eight HHAs. After being trained on the data collection instrument, nurses at each site collected data using the IF functional independence measure (FIM). The researchers’ results showed, controlling for patients’ characteristics, severity, comorbidities, and services:

  • IRF and HHA patients had lower self-care function at discharge relative to SNF patients
  • HHA patients had, on average, a 2-week longer length of stay than SNF patients

SNF patients had, on average, a 9-day longer length of stay than IRF patients

Mallinson and colleagues concluded that outcomes varied among settings “depending upon whether self-care or mobility was the outcome of focus” (Mallinson et al., 2014, 209).

DeJong’s commentary on the research of Mallinson and colleagues noted that the absence of a common PAC patient assessment instrument requires workarounds (DeJong, 2014). Researchers can use a site-neutral instrument, such as the AM-PAC, or they can use an existing PAC site-specific instrument. Both workarounds require training on the instrument for all or some of the data collectors and require special data collection outside of routine procedures.


  • Prepare 2–3 paragraphs for each question.  
  • Review the chapter in your textbook. List the data collection instrument for PAC settings discussed in the case.
  • What PAC setting is missing from the previously described research investigations? What is that setting’s data collection instrument?

Both Deutsch and DeJong note problems caused by the lack of a common data set across PAC settings. How has Congress addressed this problem?

Workarounds require special training and special data collection outside routine procedures. Why are these workarounds a problem for researchers? Does Congress’s solution address this problem?

How could you or your family benefit from a common data collection instrument across PAC settings?

What are the various methods that a healthcare facility employ to monitor medical documentation for approving stay.

How are per diem rates for SNF PPS patients determined for various cases. 

Your submission should:

Create a bibliography citing a minimum of three references according to APA format.

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