Inflammatory responses are triggered when pathogenic microorganisms invade the body. The inflammation is usually seen in the tissue and includes leukocytes, platelets, basophils and macrophages (Randall, 2018). The immune systems is the bodys safeguard. It safeguards against pathogenic microorganisms (Randall, 2018). The immune system sometimes does not function correctly. This can be a result of hypersensitive response of immune system or autoimmune response. We as nurses must be ready to treat and manage these diseases and immune dysfunctions. Immune dysfunction can present as a hypersensitivity, anaphylactic shock or some cancers (Randall, 2018). Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated immune response that occurs following an exposure to an antigen. It leads to inflammation and eradication of healthy tissue. This is commonly referred to or known as an allergic reaction. Allergic reactions can happen quickly and immediately or be delayed. Most hypersensitivity reactions are mild but some can be extreme. Mild can present with itching, hives, itchy watery eyes, scratchy throat and runny nose. We need to be aware of the signs of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylactic shock. Anaphylactic shock requires immediate response. The symptoms may be flushing, nausea, vomiting, fever, rash, angioedema, bronchospasm, causing shortness of breath, back pain and circulatory collapse (Randall, 2018).
These symptoms can complicate daily living in that some people are highly allergic to things in their immediate environment. Allergies to dust, pollen, bee stings among others can make life a little complicated. EPI pens may need to be carried by the individual in case of an attack. Bronchodilators and inhalers in case of severe bronchospasm. We need to be aware of the immediate response needed and help educate the patient on everyday signs and symptoms. They need to be aware of what they need to do in case of emergency of anaphylactic shock.
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