1 How can you tell an organized speaker from an unorganized one?

2 When do you usually think about how you’re going to organize your speech?

3 Why do you think the topical organizational pattern is the most frequently used pattern? Which organizational pattern do you think is used least, and why?

4 If you were going to give an informative speech on “space exploration,” think of two organizational patterns that might be appropriate. Now, assume you’re going to give a persuasive speech on space exploration. What might be the most appropriate way to organize your ideas? Why?

5 In public speaking, what functions are served by transitions and summaries? Can you think of several effective transitional statements to develop the speech topics from question #4?

6 Review the essential requirements for planning and key-word outlines. Why is it necessary to develop both outline forms, and why are both equally important in extemporaneous speaking?

1 What alternatives are available for capturing audience attention in an introduction? What alternatives are available for bringing closure to a speech?

2 What is the relationship between the effectiveness of a speech’s introduction and conclusion and speaker credibility?

3 What mistakes do speakers commonly make in preparing the introduction and conclusion of a speech?

4 How do effective introductions and conclusions meet the psychological needs of the audience?

5 What makes some of us funnier than others? Is it genetic or learned? Can it work for you in speeches or is it too da1 In your opinion, is spoken language significantly different from written language? How can language contribute to or detract from the effectiveness of your speech?

1 In your opinion, is spoken language significantly different from written language? How can language contribute to or detract from the effectiveness of your speech?

2 Why must language fit the needs of the speaker, audience, occasion, and message? What do you need to consider when choosing proper language in a speech?

3 What are some of the language pitfalls that you have witnessed while watching a speech? What effect did these have on the overall message for you?

4 How does humor affect the speaker–audience relationship? What impact might it have on speaker ethos? Generally, do you believe humor is correlated with higher intelligence? If so, when might this generalization not hold true?dangerous?

1 Why is extemporaneous speaking generally the most appropriate form of delivery? When would it be best to use a manuscript? To memorize? To give an impromptu speech?


2 Have you given an impromptu speech? What was its purpose, and do you think you were successful? Why or why not?


3 To what extent do you think effective verbal delivery is necessary to your overall evaluation of a speech? How do your movements, gestures, eye contact, and clothing influence your relationship with your audience and the communication of your message?


4 What is most important to remember when using note cards during your speech? Other than note cards and note pads, how else do people display notes for the speeches?


5 Under what circumstances do you feel communication anxiety? How do you know physically that you’re experiencing apprehension? How do you respond psychologically?


6 Six obstacles (fears) to public speaking were presented early in the chapter. Which of those fears do you personally experience in a public speaking situation? Which obstacles do you think would be most common in college students?


7 Although degrees of speech tension vary from speaker to speaker, most inexperienced speakers share common feelings of discomfort. What can you do to minimize your feelings of apprehension and make your nervous energy work for you rather than against you?

1 Do you think technology is inherently persuasive? When does it add impact beyond the power of the content of a message? When does it distract from the content of a message?


2 What criteria for using presentational aids would you add to the list? If you were Emperor of the World and you had the power, what decrees would you make? Can you provide three laws of the land that you would enforce on all presenters in your world?


3 How might technology augment ethos, pathos, and logos?


4 Is the speaker who uses more technology in a speech more credible than one who uses less or no technology?


5 Has increased technology made people more or less connected? Why?


6 Do students generally rehearse the use of their presentational aids for classroom reports? How about professional speakers; do you think they rehearse? If more students understood the potential payoff for rehearsing with their aids, do you think more would do dress rehearsals, or do you think most already understand this but don’t make time for it anyway? Why would that be the case, even for some?


7 What should you keep in mind as you design and develop a PowerPoint presentation? What is death-by-PowerPoint? How can you avoid this epidemic? What is the appropriate level of “PowerPointedness”?


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